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Thursday, September 16, 2010

CPRM leader joins GJMM,... R Moktan resigns from BJP ... Seat proposal focus in next round... Tea workers wage hike ... Karmapa controversy- rally on 26...

SHEEM/KalimNews: Sujan Tamang a CPRM trade Union leader of  Ambiok TE under Gorubathan left his party to join GJMM. He was Zonal Secretary of CPRM.
GJMM will start fast unto death from 17 September at Darjeeling. Members of different frontal wings of GJMM will participate in the fast demanding production of Nicole Tamang in the court as promised by CID. 
Meanwhile R Moktan resigned from BJP. He was inducted as working President of Darjeeling BJP though it was made controversial after Bansidhar Mittal of  District Committee refused to accept Moktan in the post. Moktan said that he resigned from the primary membership as BJP is dividing the district into two by separating Siliguri from it and it has failed to honour the sentiments of Gorkhas .
Ajay Dahal Chief of UGRF and arrested from Sikkim is still in Kalimpong Correctional Home though his bail was granted on 15 September by ACJM. As Dahal couldnot furnish the bail bond he was not released. Many think that Dahal feels not safe to be released during this period as this is going to be a transitional period  for a possible political agreement.  
Seat proposal focus in next round
Vivek Chhetri, TT, Darjeeling, Sept. 16: The Centre has agreed to increase the number of seats of the interim set-up to 42 from the initially proposed 20, but the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha is sticking to its demand for 55, The Telegraph has learnt.
Admitting that the Centre had placed such a proposal in the last talks earlier this month, Morcha general secretary Roshan Giri said: “No final decision has been taken and we are still demanding 55 seats, 10 per cent of which can be nominated by the governor and the rest by the Morcha.”
The Centre’s decision to increase the seats is an indication that of the many contentious issues, the one regarding the composition of the new body is likely to be solved during the next round of official-level tripartite talks on September 30.
In its initial proposal, the Centre had said the new arrangement, most likely to be called the Gorkhaland Regional Authority, would have 20 seats, of which five would be nominated by the governor.
The Morcha on its part has demanded 55 seats and does not want any election. It believes that polls would essentially mean a five-year tenure, which would go against the two-year term of the set-up agreed upon by the Centre, the state and the hill party.
The Centre and the state, on the other hand, are of the opinion that since the interim arrangement will have legislative powers, it would be unconstitutional to run it with a nominated body.
Apart from the territorial jurisdiction of the new body, other issues which are yet to be thrashed out include the transfer of the tauzi section (that keeps record of tea garden land), process of creation of the new body, and the regularisation of the contractual workers of the DGHC.
In fact, the Janmukti Asthahi Karmachari Sangathan, an affiliate of the Morcha representing the casual workers of the council, has threatened an indefinite hunger strike to pressure the government into regularising their jobs before the interim set-up is finalised.
In the rival camp, the ABGL and the GNLF have stepped up their campaigns to oppose the interim set-up. The GNLF, which had been in political hiatus for the past three years, has started forming village committees across the hills.
As a fallout, Morcha supporters gheraoed the house of Arjun Rai, convener of the GNLF’s Mirik unit, yesterday.
“They demonstrated in front of my house for half an hour and accused me of being against statehood demand. We have not opposed the statehood demand but are opposing the interim set-up, which has no constitutional guarantee. In fact, the GNLF supporters had switched over to the Morcha for statehood and not for an interim set-up,” said Arjun Rai.
Phubi Rai, convener of the Morcha’s Mirik unit, explained the gherao as the act of the common people “annoyed” with those trying to disturb the peace and tranquillity of the region.
Madan murder case
Babita Ganguly and Sona Sherpa, two members of the Nari Morcha whose names have figured in the chargesheet filed by the CID, have applied for anticipatory bail.
“The court (of the chief judicial magistrate) will hear their petition on September 22,” said defence lawyer Seshmani Gurung.
Pay more for bumpy visits to Dooars
TT,  Alipurduar, Sept. 16: Dilapidated roads in north Bengal are set to take their toll on tourism in the Dooars.
Light vehicles offering packaged tours will charge 15 per cent more to make up for the excess expenditure they incur because of the bad condition of the roads.
“Considering the damage caused to engines and the extra fuel vehicles have to consume while plying on potholed roads, we should increase the fare by 25 per cent. However, as tourists also face a lot of problems because of bumpy rides, we have decided to hike the charge by only 15 per cent,” said Bappa Pal Chowdhury, the secretary of the Lataguri Light Vehicle Owners’ Association.
Private buses have been off roads in the Siliguri subdivision and Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts since August 31, demanding the repair of state and national highways. Several organisations took to streets to protest against the lackadaisical attitude of the National Highways Authority of India and the public works department, which are in charge of the roads.
Public works minister Kshiti Goswami had convened a meeting in Jalpaiguri and declared that temporary repairs would be carried out before the Pujas. But as the work moves at snail’s pace, a trouble-free ride is a distant possibility in the festival season.
Chowdhury said tourists were fatigued a lot after travelling on potholed roads.
“The customers are offered packages to visit places like Cooch Behar, Jainti and Samsing. But after a day’s ride on roads with craters, they are so tired that they refuse to go outside the next day. Sometimes, the tourists get agitated and damage our vehicles also,” he said.
Tour operators said the taxi fare hike would be a double whammy for visitors who were already burdened with increase in rates for many other facilities.
Raj Basu, the proprietor of Help Tourism, said: “The condition of roads is so bad that tourists coming to the Dooars will not return and will discourage others from visiting the region. Forest department has already increased rates for lodging, guides and elephant ride. In all, a tourist has to shell out Rs 400 extra this year.”
He said a large number of tourists were coming to the Dooars only because of the natural beauty. “They are here only because of the natural beauty of the region. But the roads give them bad experiences. Nobody is bothered about tourism that has become the back-bone of Dooars economy. So many leaders had visited North Bengal recently, but nobody uttered a single word on road repairing,” said Basu.
Tea workers wage hike
TT, Siliguri, Sept. 16: The state government has proposed to tea planters to increase the daily wage of garden workers from Rs 67 to Rs 100, at par with what is paid under the NREGS.
Bengal labour minister Anadi Sahu’s today said garden wages should be made Rs 100, the observation coming a day after Rahul Gandhi alleged that the state was hindering the implementation of the NREGS in the plantations since it would draw the garden labourers to the better-paid central scheme.
Sahu, who was here to attend a tripartite meeting with trade union and tea planters, said: “Trade union leaders insisted that the minimum daily wage for tea workers should be Rs 100. We too agree with them and have asked the planters to decide on the wage revision soon.”
The minister refused to comment on Rahul’s allegation, but said: “The issue of wage revision is not a matter to be handled by the state alone. Even the Union labour ministry has a role. On July 15 this year, I had met the Union minister for labour and employment in Delhi and had requested him to form a central wage board for revision and fixation of tea wages. But in August, the minister wrote to me that the Centre would not form any wage board.”
In today’s meeting held at Siliguri Mahakuma Parishad conference hall, issues like housing, electricity and drinking water for tea workers were discussed in details.
“Three different surveys will be conducted by the state labour department, trade unions and the management by November this year to know the condition of workers’ quarters in 278 tea estates of the region. Also, the management has been told to apply for water connection under the Swajaldhara scheme by September 30,” Sahu said.
Trade union leaders said the onus of revising wages lay with the state labour department. “We have made it clear that revision of tea workers is imminent or else resentment will be brewing in tea estates,” said Samir Roy, convener of the Defence Committee of Plantation Workers’ Rights.
A day-long trek only for the wild feel, Siliguri, Sept. 16: A canopy of mesmerising greenery — a storehouse of varied fauna — with rivers and hills in the background makes Sukna, the entry point to Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, an idyllic tourist spot.
Located just 10km from Siliguri, the reserve forest is set to develop into a key tourist destination for nature lovers after Gorumara National Park, thanks to the introduction of day-long trips by the forest department from today.
“Earlier, visitors were allowed to enter the forest on vehicles on their own. But from today, trips will be conducted in an organised manner through joint efforts of our employees and residents of nearby forest villages,” said Tapas Das, the divisional forest officer (wildlife I). “We have opened a watchtower and will organise jungle trails for visitors. There are other plans also to pull the visitors.”
As Fulmani Rai, a 104-year-old resident of Chumtabusty, located on the fringes of the sanctuary, cut a red ribbon, the sanctuary was declared open for tourists today.
A lot of attractions are waiting for tourists at Sukna.
“It is definitely a matter of chance to sight an animal. But visitors can see birds and butterflies. We have erected a watchtower at Golaghat for tourists to spend time. Golaghat has a river with rugged banks on both sides,” said the DFO.
“Mahananda being a storehouse of butterflies, we plan to develop a garden with trees whereon the species will lay eggs, which will turn into larvae. To attract more elephants to the area, we are planting local varieties of bamboo as part of a habitat improvement programme,” said Das.
From Golaghat, which has a serpentine road, tourists, accompanied by guides, will be taken on jungle trails before they return after two hours. “Those who take the last trip (from 4pm to 6pm) will be taken to the Khairani-Punding village, where the residents will present cultural programmes and prepare ethnic food ,” said Das.
Thirty-nine youths from nearby forest villages have been trained as guides. “Each guide will get Rs 100 per trip. We will save Rs 50 (the department will charge Rs 150 from visitors) to help them during the three monsoon months when the forest remains closed,” said Das.
He said the forest department’s attempt would be to protect bio-diversity while making avenues for alternative sources of income for the people living in remote areas by promoting sustainable tourism.
Residents of Khairani-Punding said they were hopeful of additional income generation by working in association with the forest department.
“We have 25-30 women and men to prepare food and organise cultural programmes for the visitors. Around 500 people live in the area and all of us are hopeful that visits would be a hit,” said Krishna Thapa, a villager. “Also, whatever income the forest department makes out of tourism will be spent for the development of the sanctuary and fringe areas to pull in more visitors.”

Inheritance only for women married to Sikkimese
Prakha, GANGTOK, September 16: ‘The Daughters of the Soil of Sikkim’ has termed the objections on its demand for property inheritance rights for Sikkimese women married with non-locals placed by Sikkim Sachet Sarojgar Berojgar Sangathan (SSSBS) as ‘anachronistic’ and ‘male chauvinism’.
We feel the whole approach of the SSSBS on the issue at hand is anachronistic, unreasonable and smacks of male chauvinism, said the group in response to bitter opposition placed by the SSSBS.
The group, consisting of local women married with non-Sikkim subject holders, has been demanding property inheritance rights for them and their legal heirs. According to the existing laws here, the property of a Sikkimese women married to a non-local is cannot be registered under her name or her legal heirs.
The SSSBS has been contending that if such demand is accepted by the State government, the old laws of Sikkim would be violated. The petitioners begged to differ on this ground.
“However, if the flow of changes after the merger of Sikkim into the Indian Union is considered we feel that these objections are unfounded. After the merger of our State to the Indian Union in 1975, we progressed from a feudal system of government to a democratic form of government and for the sake of progress, the people of Sikkim welcome a number of changes like dissolution of parity system, provisions concerning Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes, provisions of the Mandal Commission which created further categories and the extension of Income Tax laws of the Indian Union”, the ‘Daughters of the Soil of Sikkim’ said.
“Though all the above steps were not in conformity with our old laws, yet we accepted them because they were necessary for the development of our State. But the development which we sough was not without its effects. It brought in changes in the social milieu and subsequently changes in social relations. A living society accommodates such changes with suitable amendments in its legal framework. Hence we feel that the argument which the SSSBS has put forward is anachronistic and narrow. It is narrow because it has failed to take into considerations the changes we as a State has gone through”, said the group.
This section of the Sikkimese women also countered the viewpoint put forward by the SSSBS that the issue concerns ‘only a few’. Yes it does, but the issue involved raises questions of ‘justice’ and when an issue of justice is in the docks even a feeble voice merits attention especially in a democracy where the voice of the minorities never goes unheard, they said.
Organizers expecting turnout of 50,000 participants on Sep 26 rally for Karmapa
We have waited long enough: Karmapa Reception Committee
Prakha, GANGTOK, September 16: The organizers of the proposed mass rally on September 26 at Gangtok is expecting a turnout of an estimated 50,000 supporters of Oygen Trinley Dorjee to registered their collective demand that the 17th Gyalwang Karmpa as endorsed by the Dalai Lama be allowed to take his rightful throne at Rumtek Dharma Chakra Centre by the Union government.
“It has been ten years since the 17th Gyalwang Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje had come to India. He is still not allowed to come to Sikkim and assume his seat in exile at Rumtek Dharma Chakra Centre though he travels all over the country. He is staying at Himalchal Pradesh but he why is not allowed to come to Sikkim which is also a part of India. At this point, we want to know whether Sikkim is a part of India. There is no doubt that we are part of India but sometimes the treatment given to us makes us feel that we are not part of India. If we are part of India, then he should be allowed to come to Sikkim. That’s the reason for the rally on September 26”, said KN Topden, spokesperson for the Karmapa Reception Committee in a press meet today here at Gangtok.
The Karmapa Reception Committee is organizing the September 26 peace rally at Gangtok to bring into focus the long pending demand for allowing the 17th Karmapa to take his seat at Rumtek Dharma Chakra Centre.
“The government of India must repose trust and confidence in the people of this State. It has been ten years since the Karmapa fled Tibet and took refuge in India. We have waited long enough”, reads a pamphlet of the committee.
“This is purely a religious issue and we call on everyone including government employees, students, NGOs, religious institutions, devotees and the public in general to join in this rally for our voices to be heard”, the committee said.
According to the organizers, representatives from all the 65 registered monasteries, monks, representatives from various communities, faith and organizations along with devotees totaling to around 50,000 would be participating in the rally. The rally is scheduled to commence from Guards Ground at 10:30 am and will proceed to Mitokgang for submission of a memorandum to Chief Minister Pawan Chamling. The rally would then snake down to Paljor Stadium through Kazi road, Titanic Park and Hosptial Dara.
It would be a silent rally with participants carrying placards, said Topden.
Responding to a question, the Karmapa Reception Committee spokesperson said that they are also in dark as to why the 17th Karmapa is not allowed to come to Sikkim. We are also in dark and want to know, he said.
“The movement has now been taken up by the people of Sikkim.
Patience is running out among the people. The rally is to send a message to the Union government that the demand is not limited to a dozen persons who submitted a memorandum now and then but is a demand of the Sikkimese people”, said Topden.
The committee member, Karma Tshering Bhutia explained that the committee has been conducting grassroots awareness programmes in the State on the Karmapa issue. The committee has already conducted meetings at three major monasteries of Kagyug school of Tibetan Buddhism-Ralang, Phodong and old Rumtek monasteries. During this meetings, it had been resolved to conduct a massive rally to bring notice before the Centre on the Karmapa issue.
Delay in Burman Commission- Sikkim Assembly resolves for implementation
Prakha, GANGTOK, September 16: Expressing its deep concerns on the delay in implementation and acceptance of Prof BK Roy Burman Commission report by the Centre, the Sikkim Legislative Assembly today passed a resolution for the second time in three years seeking earliest consideration of the commission’s recommendations.
The Burman Commission its executive report submitted to the Sikkim government on March 31, 2008 had recommended that the entire Sikkimese with Sikkim Subject certificates be included in the list of Scheduled Tribes. The commission had also recommended an increase in the number of seats in the Assembly from existing 32 to 40 with reservation provisions for Scheduled Tribes.
Presenting the resolution on early implementation of Burman Commission report in the Assembly today, chief whip Ugen T Gyasto Bhutia reminded that the Assembly had on June 10, 2008 had already endorsed the recommendations to be accepted by the Centre. This August House is deeply concerned on the delay in implementation of its recommendations and its acceptance by the Government of India, he said.
The resolution is, therefore, once again submitted for endorsement by the Assembly to be forwarded to the Centre for earliest consideration so that the hopes and aspirations of all segments of the population of Sikkim are given due regard for their fulfillment, said Bhutia.
The resolution was passed unanimously by the House.
While presenting the vote of thanks, Chief Minister Pawan Chamling said that the resolution on the Burman Commission report was endorsed by the House as the Sikkim government seeks to protect the interests of all Sikkimese communities. We want the rights of the Bhutia-Lepcha communities to be protected for ever and to maintain this, the rights of other Sikkimese communities should also be protected, he said.
The Leader of the House pegged the ‘Sikkim Subject certificates’, which establishes the bonafides of a genuine Sikkimese, as the base for the demand before the Centre for declaring all Sikkimese as Scheduled Tribes. “We received income tax exemption on the basis of Sikkim Subject certificates which confirms the fact that the Centre has given the exemption on the basis of Sikkim Subject Register 1961 and not on the basis of who is Scheduled Tribe and who is from backward communities. The Sikkim subject holders are already enjoying the facilities of Scheduled Tribes and only thing the Centre has to do is to give it recognition”, he said.
Hence, we are demanding eternal protection for all Sikkim Subject holders through Scheduled Tribe status, said Chamling. He said that resolution passed by the Assembly will be sent to the Centre requesting tribal status to all Sikkimese communities like it has been done for income tax exemption.
In his address, the Chief Minister also expressed his disappointment over the lackadaisical response from the bureaucracy on implementing the policies announced by the legislative. “I had made my mobile number public so that people can call me and present their suggestions and grievances. One grievance from the people is that their works are delayed at the offices. This is one drawback which we have to rectify”, he said.
Chamling pointed out that the employees in Sikkim have the highest payscale in the country and hence, the employees should shoulder their responsibilities honestly. He drew the attention of the employees that the financial strength of the State government had to face imbalance due to payment of arrears.
The Chief Minister directed the ministers and departmental heads to release the arrears of all the government employees before Dasai break. All government employees should get their arrear payments and the concerned departmental heads should see to it, he said. He also directed all departments to clear the pending bills of contractors and suppliers before the Dasai break.
Chamling further said that the departments should also clear all the land compensation bills of the land owners before the Dasai break. We have allocated provisions for land compensation in the budget and the compensation should be cleared before Dasai, he said.
The First Supplementary Demand for Grants 2010-11, Sikkim Casino (Control and Tax) Amendment Bill, Sikkim Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Bill, Sikkim Ministers, Speaker, Deputy Speaker and Members of Sikkim Legislative Assembly (Salaries and Allowances) Amendment Bill and Sikkim Parliamentary Secretaries (Appointment, Salaries, Allowances & Miscellaneous Provisions) Bill that had been tabled yesterday were passed unanimously by the Assembly today.
Suicide threat brings pension
TT, Malda, Sept. 16: A couple too old to work and abandoned by their sons for nearly a decade have threatened to commit suicide, prompting the Malda administration to announce that they would be covered by old-age pension.
Badu Singh, 70, and his wife Chandra, 65, of Arjunpur village near Gajole told reporters that they have nothing else to do but to kill themselves because they are too infirm to even beg for sustenance. Both of them, however, have BPL cards.
“We are not getting food and there is no way that we can survive. We will commit suicide in front of a government office,” said Singh.
Malda district magistrate Pramal Kumar Samanta ordered a probe after he was told about the Singhs’ plight. “I have instructed the block development officer of Gajole to find out about the couple. There are many government schemes under which they can be covered. I will ask the panchayat members why they had not done anything so long,” he said.
According to Singh, the couple’s three sons, Tuphan, Kamal and Subal, left for Delhi to work as labourers about 10 years ago and have not returned home since then.
“Till six months ago we were begging on the streets, at bus stops and markets, but we have become too weak now,” Singh, who stays in a mud hovel, said.
The couple said despite their BPL cards, they had not got any help. “For the past six weeks we have been surviving on wild herbs and roots,” said Chandra.
The CPM pradhan of the Deotala gram panchayat, Farid Hossain, said he had no information about the couple or their resolve to commit suicide. However, a CPM panchayat samiti member, Sanjib Kumar Mullick, said he had visited the couple. “They have fallen into bad times because their sons have abandoned them. We are going to do something for them,” he said.
The block development officer of Gajole, Ajmal Hossain, also visited the couple last evening. “We are starting the Rs 750 a month old-age pension for each of them. They will also be given cooked food,” the district magistrate said.
In July this year, a 50-year-old widow, Myno Baske, had tried to sell her two children so that all of them could survive. Myno, a resident of Najirpur of Old Malda, was also granted the old-age pension and she was included in the BPL category.
Magic coin con nets 7
TT, Kolkata: Seven men from different parts of India were arrested at a star hotel in the city on Wednesday night for allegedly defrauding a Chennai trader of Rs 1.15 crore by promising to sell him an antique “magic” coin that they claimed was worth much more.
The gang had asked D. Prabhu to come to Calcutta so that they could extract more money from him, according to police. The Chennai resident realised that he had walked into a trap as soon as he met some of the gang members in the hotel and called the cops.
“Ugrasen Sahoo of Bhubaneswar, Atik Ahmed alias Samir of Bangalore, Gaurav Prasad of New Delhi, Bikash Singh of Jamshedpur and Baidyanath Sahoo, Sashidar Kumbhakar and Chaitanya Kumbhakar of Mayurbhanj, Orissa, were arrested on the basis of the complaint,” said Vishal Garg, the deputy commissioner (detective department — special).
Four coins, bundles of fake notes with one side blank and fake visiting cards were found on the seven. Their cellphones were also seized.
“In early July, Samir contacted Prabhu and told him that they could make crores by buying an antique coin belonging to Bikash and then selling it to overseas buyers. Ugrasen and Gaurav later got in touch with the trader pretending to be Indian representatives of a German company and offering to pay Rs 35 crore for the coin,” said an investigator.
Over the next few weeks, gang members met the trader at various places and demonstrated the coin’s magical powers by turning a blue liquid white and performing other tricks, Prabhu told cops.
Convinced that he was being offered a good deal, the trader had forked out Rs 1.15 crore as his share of the advance payment for the coin. He came to Calcutta this week ready to make further payment for the coin.
Know about earthquakes
About 80% of the seismic energy is released by earthquakes occurring along the plate boundaries. These earthquakes are called as interpolate earthquakes, due to the fact that they are directly associated with forces related to the interaction of the plates. Thus earthquakes occurring along the Circum-Pacific belt, Mid-Atlantic ridge and Alpide-Himalayan belt fall under the category of interpolate earthquakes. Sporadically, earthquakes also occur at rather large distances from the respective plate margins, such as in central USA (New Madrid, 1812), north-eastern continental China (Tangshan, 1976) and central India (Latur, 1993). These, so called intraplate earthquakes, show a diffuse geographical distribution and their origin is still not well understood. These earthquakes can be large and because of their unexpectedness and infrequency can cause major disasters.
Earthquakes caused by the sudden release of accumulated strain energy, due to interaction of two or more lithospheric plates, are distinguished as tectonic earthquakes in contrast to volcanic earthquakes. Volcanic earthquakes are caused by sudden opening of channels in crustal rocks, rapid changes of motion of magma, excessive accumulation of gas pressure in the crust, roof collapses of subterranean channels emptied by magma and other associated phenomena of volcanic eruptions. Close to active volcanoes, so called volcanic tremors are frequently detected which are result of long duration, continuous volcanic vibrations.
There is another class of earthquakes called plutonic earthquakes, whose focus is far underground, sometimes as deep as 700 km. They comprise only 5-10 % of all recorded events but are responsible for the present day knowledge of wave motion and nature of the interior of the earth. The tectonic, plutonic and volcanic type earthquakes belong to the category of natural seismic sources.
There is also a variety of man -made seismic sources such as industrial or military (nuclear) explosions and various types of cultural noises (traffic, industry, construction works, etc.) which are examples of controlled seismic sources where place, time of occurrence and source intensity are determined in advance or are, at least, predictable. Other types of man-made seismic sources are induced or triggered events caused by reservoir loading, mining activities and fluid injection etc. Two plausible mechanisms are available to explain triggered events. Firstly, by changes in local elastic stresses (loading, unloading) caused by removal of large volumes or rocks as in mining and quarrying operations and by reservoir impounding. Secondly, by an increase of pore and fracture pressure, e.g. due to fluid injection, which in turn decreases the rock strength (it acts as a lubricant) and may thus give rise to an increase in local seismicity. It is obvious that the activity in the controlled seismic sources is confined to the source region and hence will be of very shallow nature. Although the physical explanations of reservoir induced seismicity (RIS) are still imperfectly understood but the impounding of large reservoirs can obviously affect both the local elastic stress as well as the fluid pressure. The seismic activity in Koyna region of Maharashtra is a unique example of RIS, which has been continuing for the last about three decades.
Earthquakes may also be classified as shallow-focus, intermediate-focus and deep-focus depending upon their focal depths. Shallow-focus earthquakes, which constitute about 80% of total activity, have their foci at a depth between 0 and 70 km. and occur at oceanic ridges, collision and subduction zones and transform faults. Intermediate-focus earthquakes (focal depth between 71 and 300 km.) and deep-focus earthquakes (focal depth greater than 300 km.) occur at subjection zones. Most earthquakes originate within the crust. At depth beneath the Moho, the number falls abruptly and dies down to zero at a depth of about 700 km. (PIB)

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